• WAHID M. HASSAN Assis. Professor, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • SAMIM A AL-DABBAGH Professor, Department of Community medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • REDIR T HASSAN Assis. Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, Biology and Histology, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • MOHAMMAD TAHIR RASOOL Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Keywords: LBP, Sciatica, Supportive belt and Sheteck


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint in general practice. There are conflicting reports about the benefit of supportive belts in the treatment and prevention of LBP. The aim of this study is to identify any possible preventive effect of the traditional male Kurdish belt (Sheteck) on LBP and sciatica. 

Method: A case-control study was designed. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and filled for participants in Duhok governorate in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.  Cases were patients presented with LBP, while control was aged-matched (± 5 years) apparently healthy individuals who had no LBP at least in the previous 10 years. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data management. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, was used for calculation of the statistical significance. The mean, standard deviation (±SD), and Odd ratios were used with some clinical and general criteria.  

Results: A total of 149 cases and 100 controls were participated in this study. The mean ages of cases and controls were 51.4 (±13.28) and 59.22 (±12.6), respectively. The mean duration of LBP among cases was 5.54 years (±6.17), with 47% of them have pain radiating to the leg, and around 42.9% had involved in the sciatic nerve. None of the controls had LBP or sciatica. The habit of wearing Sheteck was significantly negatively associated (P <0.001) with the absence of LBP with an Odd ratio of 0.23. The study also found that the period and duration of wearing Sheteck per day were significantly longer (P <0.001) in controls in comparison to cases. Finally, the Sheteck was almost completely protective for sciatica among cases.

Conclusion: Traditional Kurdish male belt (Sheteck) is highly protective for LBP and Sciatica.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Eklund, A., Jensen, I., Lohela-Karlsson, M., Hagberg, J., Leboeuf-Yde, C., et al. Nordic Maintenance Care program: Effectiveness of chiropractic maintenance care versus symptom-guided treatment for recurrent and persistent low back pain-A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. PloS one. 2018; 13(9): e0203029. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0203029
2. Zheng, Y. L., Wang, X. F., Chen, B. L., Gu, W., Wang, X., Xu, B., et al. Effect of 12-Week Whole-Body Vibration Exercise on Lumbopelvic Proprioception and Pain Control in Young Adults with Nonspecific Low Back Pain. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2019; 25: 443–452. doi:10.12659/MSM.912047
3. Doualla, M., Aminde, J., Aminde, L. N., Lekpa, F. K., Kwedi, F. M., Yenshu, E. V., et al. Factors influencing disability in patients with chronic low back pain attending a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2019; 20(1): 25. doi:10.1186/s12891-019-2403-9
4. Alnaami, I., Awadalla, N. J., Alkhairy, M., Alburidy, S., Alqarni, A., Algarni, A., et al. Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain among health care workers in southwestern Saudi Arabia. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2019; 20(1): 56. doi:10.1186/s12891-019-2431-5
5. Mehling, W.E., Avins, A. L., Acree, M. C., Carey, T. S., & Hecht, F. M. Can a back pain screening tool help classify patients with acute pain into risk levels for chronic pain? Eur J Pain. 2015; 19(3): 439–446. doi:10.1002/ejp.615
6. Edwards, J., Hayden, J., Asbridge, M., & Magee, K. The prevalence of low back pain in the emergency department: a descriptive study set in the Charles V. Keating Emergency and Trauma Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2018,
7. Konstantinou, K., Dunn, K. M., Ogollah, R., Lewis, M., van der Windt, D., Hay, E. M., et al. Prognosis of sciatica and back-related leg pain in primary care: the ATLAS cohort. The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2018; 18(6); 1030–1040. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2017.10.071
8. Boote, J., Newsome, R., Reddington, M., Cole, A., & Dimairo, M. Physiotherapy for Patients with Sciatica Awaiting Lumbar Micro-discectomy Surgery: A Nested, Qualitative Study of Patients’ Views and Experiences. Physiotherapy research international: the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy. 2017; 22(3): e1665. doi:10.1002/pri.1665
9. Shipton E. A. Physical Therapy Approaches in the Treatment of Low Back Pain. Pain and therapy. 2018; 7(2): 127–137. doi:10.1007/s40122-018-0105-x
10. Wong, A. Y., Karppinen, J., & Samartzis, D. Low back pain in older adults: risk factors, management options and future directions. Scoliosis and spinal disorders. 2017; 12: 14. doi:10.1186/s13013-017-0121-3
11. Sanders, T., Foster, N. E., Bishop, A., & Ong, B. N. Biopsychosocial care and the physiotherapy encounter: physiotherapists’ accounts of back pain consultations. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2013; 14: 65. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-65
12. Godfrey, E., Galea Holmes, M., Wileman, V., McCracken, L., Norton, S., Moss-Morris, R., et al. Physiotherapy informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (PACT): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of PACT versus usual physiotherapy care for adults with chronic low back pain. BMJ open. 2016; 6(6): e011548. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011548
13. Karstens, S., Kuithan, P., Joos, S., Hill, J. C., Wensing, M., Steinhäuser, J., et al. Physiotherapists’ views of implementing a stratified treatment approach for patients with low back pain in Germany: a qualitative study. BMC health services research. 2018; 18(1): 214. doi:10.1186/s12913-018-2991-3
14. Lyons, K. J., Salsbury, S. A., Hondras, M. A., Jones, M. E., Andresen, A. A., & Goertz, C. M. Perspectives of older adults on co-management of low back pain by doctors of chiropractic and family medicine physicians: a focus group study. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2013; 13: 225. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-225
15. Khan, Y., Lawrence, D., Vining, R., & Derby, D. Measuring biopsychosocial risk for back pain disability in chiropractic patients using the STarT back screening tool: a cross sectional survey. Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 2019; s12998-018-0228-5
16. Chou, L., Ranger, T. A., Peiris, W., Cicuttini, F. M., Urquhart, D. M., Briggs, A. M., et al. Patients’ perceived needs for allied health, and complementary and alternative medicines for low back pain: A systematic scoping review. Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy. 2018; 21(5): 824–847. doi:10.1111/hex.12676
17. Anders, C., & Hübner, A. Influence of elastic lumbar support belts on trunk muscle function in patients with non-specific acute lumbar back pain. PloS one. 2019; 14(1): e0211042. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211042
18. Larivière, C., Caron, J. M., Preuss, R., & Mecheri, H. The effect of different lumbar belt designs on the lumbopelvic rhythm in healthy subjects. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2014; 15: 307. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-307
19. Calmels P, Queneau P, Hamonet C, Le Pen C, Maurel F, Lerouvreur C, et al. Effectiveness of a Lumbar Belt in Subacute Low Back Pain: An Open, Multicentric, and Randomized Clinical Study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31819577dc
20. Rostami M, Noormohammadpour P, Sadeghian AH, Mansournia MA, & Kordi R. The effect of lumbar support on the ultrasound measurements of trunk muscles: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. PM R. 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2013.09.014
21. Molimard, J., Bonnaire, R., Han, W. S., Convert, R., & Calmels, P. In-silico pre-clinical trials are made possible by a new simple and comprehensive lumbar belt mechanical model based on the Law of Laplace including support deformation and adhesion effects. PloS one. 2019; 14(3): e0212681. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0212681
22. Vo, N. V., Hartman, R. A., Patil, P. R., Risbud, M. V., Kletsas, D., Iatridis, J. C., et al. Molecular mechanisms of biological aging in intervertebral discs. Journal of orthopaedic research: official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. 2016; 34(8): 1289–1306. doi:10.1002/jor.23195
23. Hashimoto, Y., Matsudaira, K., Sawada, S. S., Gando, Y., Kawakami, R., Kinugawa, C. et al. Obesity and low back pain: a retrospective cohort study of Japanese males. Journal of physical therapy science. 2017; 29(6): 978–983. doi:10.1589/jpts.29.978
24. Hopayian K, Notley C. A systematic review of low back pain and sciatica patients’ expectations and experiences of health care. Spine J. 2014.
25. Hagiwara, Y., Yabe, Y., Yamada, H., Watanabe, T., Kanazawa, K., Koide, M. et al. Effects of a wearable type lumbosacral support for low back pain among hospital workers: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of occupational health. 2017; 59(2): 201–209. doi:10.1539/joh.16-0203-OA
How to Cite