EFFECTS OF LATENT TOXOPLASMOSIS ON AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASES IN PREGNANT WOMEN - DUHOK CITY-KURDISTAN REGION- IRAQ
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease has a global distribution and can infect many hosts causes several clinical symptoms in humans and attack many body organs leading to hormonal and behavioral alterations in infected hosts. Latent or dormant form toxoplasmosis is the common form that can affect pregnancy course. Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) belongs to the known risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was the detection of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and its effects on autoimmune thyroid disease among pregnant women.
Methods: A total of 220 pregnant women were included in the current study from August 1st 2021 to February 1st, 2022. Toxoplasma status in pregnant women was detected for seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies using ELISA technique. Free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO) were assessed by ELISA. The blood parameters of examined pregnant women were measured by a Coulter counter machine.
Results: Overall, 95(43.2%) of the examined pregnant women had seropositivity for anti- Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 28(12.7%) were screened positive for AITD. Out of 95 seropositive IgG antibody cases, 18 (18.9%) had AITD. Out of 220 pregnant, 90 (40.9%) had normal thyroid, while thyroid disorders are classified to subclinical hypothyroidism, clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and clinical hyperthyroidism, 64(29.1%), 41 (18.6%), 22(10.0%), and 3 (1.4%) respectively. From 95 seropositive anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, high rates were detected in subclinical hypothyroidism 35(36.8%), followed by 31(32.6%) with normal thyroid, and 19 (20.0%) had clinical hypothyroidism, while only,9 (9.5%), and1(1.1%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and clinical hyperthyroidism respectively. High infection rate was recorded among women in third trimester of pregnancy 60 (44.4%) compared to lower infection rate in first trimester women 20(40.0%). The IgG antibodies seropositive women had more often highly elevated TPO antibodies than negative ones, and the latent toxoplasmosis was associated disturbance of thyroid hormones. The antibodies seropositive women had high total leucocyte count, high lymphocytes, high count of granulocytes, low total red blood cells count and low hemoglobin level.
Conclusions: The current study indicated that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with alteration in thyroid functions and autoimmunity during pregnancy. Pregnant women should be tested for FT3, FT4, TSH hormones, and TPO antibodies with measurement of hematological parameters in order to reduce the risk in both mother and fetus and provides early therapies.
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