• DONIA KREIT ALI * Family medicine physician, Kurdistan Board Family.
  • KARWAN HAWEZ SULAIMAN Family Medicine Consultant; Kurdistan board for medical Specialties, Iraq.
  • RAGIB HASAN SANAAN Lecturer, Department of Community and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Depression, type ii diabetesmellitus, Duhok city


Background: Diabetes is one of the largest global health emergencies of the 21st century and depression is commonly found as a co morbid condition in chronic medical illnesses. Patients with diabetes are twice as likely to suffer from depression compared to the general population. The predictors of depression in a sample of Iraqi Patients with type 2 Diabetes were examined and evaluated in the present study.

Subject and Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 254 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were invited from three diabetes centers in Duhok city in Iraqi Kurdistan between June 2017 and February 2018. The presence of depression was measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale.

Results: The agerange of the patients was (33-90 years) with a mean age of 55.07±9.67 years The study sample comprised a total of 254 patients with equal number of both genders and had disease forth last 9.96 years. The mean BMI was 27.4. More than 72.4% of the patients had uncontrolled blood glucose. The most prevalent co morbidity in patients was hypertension (54.3%), dyslipidemia (61%), overweight and obesity(75.2%). A small percentage of the patients was on insulin (22.8%) and smoker (12.2%). The prevalence of clinical depression (BDI >16 scores) among patients was 70.9% with mean score 22.29. The study showed that aging,female gender, and having dyslipidemia as predictors of depression in the study sample.

Conclusions: The study showed that more than two thirds of the included patients had depression, most of them having mild to moderate level. Being older, female gender, and having dyslipidemia were shown to be predictors of depression in type 2 diabetic patients.


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