• HAYAT S. AHMED Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, College of medicine. University of Duhok, Iraq
  • BASHAR A. AL-HASSAWI Assistant Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine. University of Duhok, Iraq
  • ABDULGHAFOOR SULAIMAN ABDULKAREEM Assistant Professor, Department of surgery, College of Medicine. University of Duhok, Iraq
Keywords: Urinary bladder, Urothelium, Carinoma, Hematuria


Background and Objectives: Urinary bladder like any organ in the body that involved by many non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. These lesions are more disabling than being fatal. Bladder tumor is the seventh most common tumor worldwide. Although progress has been made in the field of non-invasive imaging, histopathological study of bladder biopsy is still the gold standard for tumor diagnosis, grading, staging and management. This study is conducted to clarify the pathological changes of various lesions in the urinary bladder biopsies that obtained by cystoscopy, and to categorize the bladder tumor according to WHO classification.

Subject and Method: All the subjects involved in this study were obtained from central laboratory and private laboratories in Duhok province, Kurdistan Region-Iraq, during a period extended from January 2009 to December 2015.

Results: Histologically 376 cystoscopic biopsies were studied. The males were 236 (76.1%) and females were 90 (23.9%); the male to female ratio was 3.1:1 Non neoplastic lesions accounted for 97 cases (25.8%), Neoplastic lesions accounted for 279 cases (74.2%). Of the total cases 9.4% of patients were presented by hematuria. Among the non-neoplastic lesions there were 87 (89.7%) inflammatory lesions, and the urothelial transitional cell carcinomas were the most common histopathological ones among the neoplastic lesions 278 (99.6%) . Adenocarcinoma were found in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two, one with sarcomatoid carcinoma and metastatic lesion in one.

Conclusions: This study concludes that the most histopathological bladder lesions are neoplastic ones. The non-invasive low grade tansitional cell carcinoma is the commonest type among bladder tumors and more frequently seen in males above age of 60, where’s inflammatory lesions are more frequent non neoplastic diseases. Hematuria is the main presenting symptom of the patients with bladder lesions.



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