STATUS OF SERUM MAGNESIUM IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS: RELATION TO GLYCEMIC CONTROL
Background: Magnesium has an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrate so that it may affect the release and activation of insulin which is the hormone that controls levels of blood glucose. Different studies all over the world have found a low serum Magnesium in diabetic children with poor glycemic control reflected mainly by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Our aim was to evaluate the serum magnesium status in children with type 1 diabetes and to assess its relation to glycemic control.
Methods: A case control study included 50 diabetic patients whose ages were between 1 and 18 years and 50 controls who were age- and sex-matched chosen from the siblings of the patients who visited the center during the study period. Serum Magnesium was assayed and acut off point equal to and above 1.7 mg/dl considered as normal level. The glycemic control of patients was classified according toHbA1c % as good <7.5%, poor 7.5-8.5% and very poor >8.5%.Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 22.A P value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: of the total patients 32% had Hypomagnesemia compared to 10% of controls. Serum magnesium level was significantly lower in diabetic children as compared to controls (p<0.007). The diabetic patients in the first quartile had the lower value of serum magnesium. The remaining values, including duration of diabetes and HbA1 were comparably non-significant. A significant inverse correlation was found between serum magnesium and glycated hemoglobin level(r=-0.302, p =0.033).
Conclusion: Serum magnesium level is frequently low in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. There is a significant correlation between serum magnesium level and the glycemic control. Therefore we recommend doing regular monitoring of serum magnesium in type 1diabetic children and appropriate supplement of low levels.