• HUSSEIN M. RASHID Assist. lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq
  • FOUAD KASIM MOHAMMAD Professor, Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq. *** Professor, Department
  • DANIELE S. PERSIKE Professor, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq
Keywords: Cholinesterase, Malondialdehyde, Organophosphate, Oxidative stress, Type 2 diabetes


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects functional aspects of many enzymatic systems, including those of blood cholinesterases. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between oxidative stress and blood plasma cholinesterase activities in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Subjects and methods: A total of 200 subjects (100) apparently healthy individuals and 100 type 2 diabetic patients) of both sexes (50/gender) were enrolled in this study. Their ages ranged between 30 to 70 years. The enrolled participants were not exposed to organophosphate insecticides or any medication that is known to interfere with cholinesterase activity. The criteria of WHO for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were applied for confirming the diagnosis. Plasma malondialdehyde concentration, an oxidative stress marker and both plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities were measured in all subjects.

Results: Significantly (P< 0.05) higher plasma malondialdehyde concentrations with both plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities were found in type 2 diabetic patients, compared to respective healthy individuals. Plasma malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased in both male and female type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Plasma cholinesterase activity significantly increased in type 2 diabetic male patients, whereas that of the erythrocyte significantly increased in type 2 diabetic females compared to healthy individuals’ respective values.

Conclusions: Elevated malondialdehyde concentrations in conjunction with increased blood cholinesterase activities may render type 2 diabetic patients more susceptible to oxidative stress; this might impact therapy with cholinesterase inhibitors when there is exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides.



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