• DIYAR MOHAMMED TAHER ALI Department of Laboratories, Azadi Teaching Hospital, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
  • ABDULRAHMAN TOWFEEQ SAADI Assist. Professor, Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq
Keywords: Antibiotic and Vitek-2, High Vaginal Swabs (HVS), Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion, Risk factors, Streptococcus agalactiae-Group B Streptococci (GBS)


Background: Pregnant women colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae-Group B Streptococci (GBS) can transmit the bacteria to their new-borns at the time of birth.  Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) can prevent this transmission. The aim of this study is to find out the carriage rate of group B streptococci isolated from pregnant women in Duhok city, Iraq. Other aim is to study the Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates and to detect the risk factors associated with the growth of these bacteria.

Methods: Exactly 821 pregnant women living in Duhok city were randomly screened for GBS colonization, over a period of 7 months from 1st of January, 2022 till 1st of August, 2022. High vaginal swabs (HVS) sample were collected, processed and identification was performed by Vitek system 2. The isolated strains of GBS were selected for in vitro susceptibility testing. As well as also risk factors associated with infection were assessed.

Results: GBS was detected in 37/821 accounted (4.51%) pregnant women. Risk factors such as vaginal discharge, UTI, Diabetes, abortions and still birth did not show major differences between positive and negative cases of GBS. Pencillin G, Co-Amoxiclav, Nitrofurantoin, Vancomycin and Ampiciilin have shown the highest sensitivity percentages (93.9%, 93.8%, 88.9%, 87.5% and 84% respectively). The sensitivity rate for other B-Lactams: Cepholothin, Ceftriaxone and Cefixim were: 70.6%, 63% and 78% respectively. The sensitivity for Gentamicin was 38.9% and 48.4% for Ciprofloxacin. However, the lowest sensitivity rates were detected for Clindamycin, Amikacin and Erythromycin: 26.1%, 30% and 30.5% respectively.

Conclusions: Carriage rates of GBS among pregnant women in this setting are still low-grade. Penicillin and Ampicillin are the drugs of choice (intra-partum prophylaxis) against GBS in pregnancy. Co-amoxiclave and Vancomycin also had a high level of sensitivity.


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