• BISHKOVA SALIH KHALID MBChB, Msc student, College of Health Sciences, , University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
  • SUAD YOUSIF ALKASS Professor in Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, , University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.Iraq.
Keywords: Atherogenic status, Covid-19, Glycemic status, Long term complications


Background: While most infected people recovered completely from COVID-19 within a few weeks, a considerable proportion continues to experience symptoms after their initial recovery similar to SARS survivors. Intensive ongoing research has shed light on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the extent of damages caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) but the intermediate and long-term complications remain unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the glycemic and atherogenic status in non-hospitalized and recovered covid-19 individuals without underlying diseases prior to the infection.

Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects from all the staff of Duhok University were enrolled in this case-control study.  The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 107 subjects non-hospitalized recovered from covid-19 at more than 3 months after infection which was proved by RT-PCR and Group 2 included 93 healthy subjects who have not been infected with covid-19 as control group. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for glycemic and atherogenic related parameters. 

Results: There was no significant differences in blood pressure, glycemic and atherogenic status between previously infected and not infected subjects. However triglycerides (TG) and cardio-protective index (CPI) were slightly and non-significantly higher and low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) lower in previously infected subjects. Also, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), Homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and risk of atherogenicity were slightly higher in the infected males, younger ages, older ages and obese subjects.

Conclusions: There are no long-term effects of COVID-19 on the glycemic and atherogenic status of the recovered not hospitalized patients.


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