GLYCEMIC AND ATHEROGENIC STATUS AMONG DUHOK UNIVERSITY STAFF RECOVERED FROM COVID-19 WITH NO COMORBIDITIES
Background: While most infected people recovered completely from COVID-19 within a few weeks, a considerable proportion continues to experience symptoms after their initial recovery similar to SARS survivors. Intensive ongoing research has shed light on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the extent of damages caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) but the intermediate and long-term complications remain unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the glycemic and atherogenic status in non-hospitalized and recovered covid-19 individuals without underlying diseases prior to the infection.
Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects from all the staff of Duhok University were enrolled in this case-control study. The subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 107 subjects non-hospitalized recovered from covid-19 at more than 3 months after infection which was proved by RT-PCR and Group 2 included 93 healthy subjects who have not been infected with covid-19 as control group. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for glycemic and atherogenic related parameters.
Results: There was no significant differences in blood pressure, glycemic and atherogenic status between previously infected and not infected subjects. However triglycerides (TG) and cardio-protective index (CPI) were slightly and non-significantly higher and low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) lower in previously infected subjects. Also, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), Homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and risk of atherogenicity were slightly higher in the infected males, younger ages, older ages and obese subjects.
Conclusions: There are no long-term effects of COVID-19 on the glycemic and atherogenic status of the recovered not hospitalized patients.
2. Pal R, Banerjee M. COVID-19 and the endocrine system: exploring the unexplored. Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2020 Jul;43(7):1027-31.
3. Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis ML, Lely AT, Navis GV, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. The Journal of Pathology: A Journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 2004 Jun;203(2):631-7.
4. Liu F, Long X, Zhang B, Zhang W, Chen X, Zhang Z. ACE2 expression in pancreas may cause pancreatic damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2020 Aug 1;18(9):2128-30.
5. Yang JK, Feng Y, Yuan MY, Yuan SY, Fu HJ, Wu BY, et al. Plasma glucose levels and diabetes are independent predictors for mortality and morbidity in patients with SARS. Diabetic medicine. 2006 Jun;23(6):623-8.
6. Yang JK, Lin SS, Ji XJ, Guo LM. Binding of SARS coronavirus to its receptor damages islets and causes acute diabetes. Acta diabetologica. 2010 Sep;47(3):193-9.
7. Montefusco L, Ben Nasr M, D’Addio F, Loretelli C, Rossi A, Pastore I, et al. Acute and long-term disruption of glycometabolic control after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nature Metabolism. 2021 Jun;3(6):774-85.
8. Mongioì LM, Barbagallo F, Condorelli RA, Cannarella R, Aversa A, La Vignera S, et al. Possible long-term endocrine-metabolic complications in COVID-19: lesson from the SARS model. Endocrine. 2020 Jun;68(3):467-70.
9. Jia X, Yin C, Lu S, Chen Y, Liu Q, Bai J, et al. Two things about COVID-19 might need attention.2020.
10. Kassir R. Risk of COVID‐19 for patients with obesity. Obesity Reviews. 2020 Jun;21(6).
11. Roccaforte V, Daves M, Lippi G, Spreafico M, Bonato C. Altered lipid profile in patients with COVID-19 infection. J. Lab. Precis. Med. 2021;6(2).
12. Li G, Du L, Cao X, Wei X, Jiang Y, Lin Y, et al. Follow-up study on serum cholesterol profiles and potential sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2021 Dec;21(1):1-0.
13. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985 Jul;28(7):412-9.
14. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical chemistry. 1972 Jun 1;18(6):499-502.
15. Althunibat OY, Al Hroob AM, Abukhalil MH, Germoush MO, Bin-Jumah M, Mahmoud AM. Fisetin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Life sciences. 2019 Mar 15;221:83-92.
16. De Celle T, Heeringa P, Strzelecka AE, Bast A, Smits JF, Janssen BJ. Sustained protective effects of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in an in vivo model of cardiac ischemia–reperfusion. European journal of pharmacology. 2004 Jun 28;494(2-3):205-12.
17. Oršolić N, Skurić J, Đikić D, Stanić G. Inhibitory effect of a propolis on di-n-propyl disulfide or n-hexyl salycilate-induced skin irritation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in mice. Fitoterapia. 2014 Mar 1;93:18-30.
18. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, et al. Living guidance for clinical management of COVID-19: living guidance, 23 November 2021. World Health Organization, 2021.
19. Tadic M, Saeed S, Grassi G, Taddei S, Mancia G, Cuspidi C. Hypertension and COVID-19: ongoing controversies. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2021 Feb 17;8:639222.
20. Soumya RS, Unni TG, Raghu KG. Impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system: a review of available reports. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. 2021 Jun;35(3):411-25..
21. South AM, Diz DI, Chappell MC. COVID-19, ACE2, and the cardiovascular consequences. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2020 Apr 13.
22. Delalić Đ, Jug J, Prkačin I. Arterial hypertension following COVID-19: A retrospective study of patients in a Central European tertiary care center. Acta clinica Croatica. 2022 Jun 1;61(Supplement 1):23-6.
23. Akpek M. Does COVID-19 cause hypertension?. Angiology. 2022 Aug;73(7):682-7.
24. Viswanathan V, Puvvula A, Jamthikar AD, Saba L, Johri AM, Kotsis V, et al. Bidirectional link between diabetes mellitus and coronavirus disease 2019 leading to cardiovascular disease: A narrative review. World journal of diabetes. 2021 Mar 15;12(3):215.
25. Rubino F, Amiel SA, Zimmet P, Alberti G, Bornstein S, Eckel RH, et al. New-onset diabetes in Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020 Aug 20;383(8):789-90.
26. Sathish T, Tapp RJ, Cooper ME, Zimmet P. Potential metabolic and inflammatory pathways between COVID-19 and new-onset diabetes. Diabetes & metabolism. 2021 Mar;47(2):101204.
27. Bornstein SR, Rubino F, Khunti K, Mingrone G, Hopkins D, Birkenfeld AL, et al. Practical recommendations for the management of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology. 2020 Jun 1;8(6):546-50.
28. Sathish T, Cao Y, Kapoor N. Newly diagnosed diabetes in COVID-19 patients. Prim Care Diabetes. 2021 Feb 1;15(1):194.
29. Sathish T, Tapp RJ, Cooper ME, Zimmet P. Potential metabolic and inflammatory pathways between COVID-19 and new-onset diabetes. Diabetes & metabolism. 2021 Mar;47(2):101204.
30. Holmes E, Wist J, Masuda R, Lodge S, Nitschke P, Kimhofer T, et al. Incomplete systemic recovery and metabolic phenoreversion in post-acute-phase nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients: implications for assessment of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Journal of proteome research. 2021 May 19;20(6):3315-29.
31. Feingold KR. The bidirectional link between HDL and COVID-19 infections. Journal of Lipid Research. 2021 Jan 1;62.
32. Wu D, Shu T, Yang X, Song JX, Zhang M, Yao C, et al. Plasma metabolomic and lipidomic alterations associated with COVID-19. National Science Review. 2020 Jul 1;7(7):1157-68.
33. Li G, Du L, Cao X, Wei X, Jiang Y, Lin Y, et al. Follow-up study on serum cholesterol profiles and potential sequelae in recovered COVID-19 patients. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2021 Dec;21(1):1-0.
34. Wang S, Xu J, Luo P, Yang L, Song S, Tan X, et al. Plasma metabolomic profiles and clinical features in recovered COVID-19 patients without previous underlying diseases 3 Months after discharge.
35. Xu J, Zhou M, Luo P, Yin Z, Wang S, Liao T, Yang F, Wang Z, Yang D, Peng Y, Geng W. Plasma metabolomic profiling of patients recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with pulmonary sequelae 3 months after discharge. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2021 Dec 15;73(12):2228-39.